Generating random color codes in Python 3
I was looking at question from Stack Overflow asking
How to use
random to choose colors.
I wanted to take a shot at it before reading the answers again.
- I was thinking of a 24-bit RGB color in hex representation, e.g.
#ff9900(I come from HTML and CSS)
- But hex is just a representation/format, like octal and decimal.
In decimal, a 24-bit color is a number between 0 and 16777216. (
- The web colors consist of red, green and blue (RGB) channels. Maybe I should return a byte for each channel instead of all at once. Maybe it matters in terms of distribution?
- Can I do this with
At first I made a function to return a hexadecimal string
import random def rand_web_color_hex(): rgb = "" for _ in "RGB": i = random.randrange(0, 2**8) rgb += i.to_bytes(1, "big").hex() return rgb print(rand_web_color_hex()) # 2f04d8 print(rand_web_color_hex()) # 8dbc53 print(rand_web_color_hex()) # 022632
Then I thought I might make a function to return a decimal number, too
import random def rand_web_color_dec(): return random.randrange(0, 16**6) print(rand_web_color_dec()) # 7431420 print(rand_web_color_dec()) # 12678862 print(rand_web_color_dec()) # 582912
Naturally, a lot smaller. A simple call to
randrange() to return a 24-bit
integer. Makes me want to revisit the hex function to simplify it. Hex is
simply a number formatted in base16, and for web colors, they are zero-padded
to maintain their length of 6 hexadecimal chars. I know there’s a way
to return numbers in hex notation using
def rand_web_color_hex(): return "%06x" % random.randrange(0, 16**6) print(rand_web_color_hex()) # 06dffd print(rand_web_color_hex()) # 6f0e2a print(rand_web_color_hex()) # 1d3df2
In the above code, I’m using the
% string formatting operator from PEP 3101,
%x will format a number user lower-case hex notation,
6 pads the string
with spaces to make it consist of at least six characters, and lastly, the
use zeros for padding instead of spaces.
Now, if I want to return a color with separated channels, like
rgb(r, g, b) format, I must add another function. I can use
bytearray.fromhex() to convert from hex
to a byte array.
def rand_web_color_hex(): return "%06x" % random.randrange(0, 16**6) def to_rgb(color_str): barr = bytearray.fromhex(color_str) return (barr, barr, barr) hex_color = rand_web_color_hex() print(hex_color, to_rgb(hex_color)) # 958c3b (149, 140, 59)
Cleaning up and refactoring a bit, yields the following code.
import random def rand_24_bit(): """Returns a random 24-bit integer""" return random.randrange(0, 16**6) def color_dec(): """Alias of rand_24 bit()""" return rand_24_bit() def color_hex(num=rand_24_bit()): """Returns a 24-bit int in hex""" return "%06x" % num def color_rgb(num=rand_24_bit()): """Returns three 8-bit numbers, one for each channel in RGB""" hx = color_hex(num) barr = bytearray.fromhex(hx) return (barr, barr, barr) c = color_dec() print("%8d #%6s rgb%s" % ( c, color_hex(c), color_rgb(c) ))
This was a good exercise for maths and formatting in Python. Hope you liked it too!
For the formatting of the decimal notation, I wanted to figure out the maximum number of digits a 24-bit number could consist of in base10. @capitol of Hackeriet helped me out with the formula. Thanks!
ceil( 24 * (log(2) / log(10) ) = 8